平遥文庙学宫 2019-10-28 10:37:20 作者:SystemMaster 来源:
The fourth treasure in the four treasures of the Wenfang is the enamel, which is the stationery that is indispensable for grinding ink and ink. The most famous gongs in history are Guangdong Duanyi, Anhui 歙砚, Gansu Caohejing, Shanxi 绛县澄泥砚, known as the “Four Famous Names”. "砚", while Duan and Yan are ranked first, and they are famous in China. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, 砚 was not only used for painting and calligraphy, but also a gift for friends, so it was more decorative. Song Suyi's "The Four Books of the Wenfang" said: "The four treasures are headed, and both ink and paper can be taken at any time, and they can be used for life and forever." There are certain restrictions on the use of the Yongtai in use and cleaning, especially the cleaning. The ancients have the saying that "it is better not to wash the face for three days, not to wash for three days." The tools used in conjunction with the platform are also used to store dripping water for dripping, also called water droplets and book drops.
In addition to the "four treasures", traditional Chinese stationery, including a lot of auxiliary stationery, such as arm rest, ink cartridges, ink pad, ink pad, etc., these materials, jade, stone, gold, silver, copper , iron, ivory, and so on, different shapes, exquisite carving, can be used for appreciation, it is also known as wenwan. .+
In the Ming Dynasty, Tu Long described more than forty kinds of stationery supplies in the "Stationery Yabian". If you have leisure, you may wish to ponder it. Next, go to Minglun Hall.
Ming Lun Tang is the main building of this school. It was the place where senior teachers gave lectures. Now it is opened as a life exhibition for Confucius.
Confucius, the image of the cloth, was carved on the central screen of the Minglun Hall. According to the works of the famous painter Wu Daozi of the Tang Dynasty, the couplet is next to the "Establishing the History of the World, Asking the Way to Slim" and telling people that it should To establish a harmonious and peaceful society by governing the country with the highest realm of Confucianism, but managers should have a high moral level while possessing talents, and “the road to self-cultivation” should not be used when both sides are perfect. It should be forgotten that the four words in the horizontal batch are "one consistent"
Confucius was a native of Qufu, Shandong Province. He was born in 551 BC and died in 479 BC. At the age of 73, his life was not very flat. Today's esteem and respect for him are also unanticipated during his lifetime.
Confucius summed up his life into six stages. "I have five and five ambitions to learn, thirty are standing, forty is not confusing, fifty is knowing destiny, sixty is pleasing, seventy is free, and it is not overwhelming. "This is a rough life coordinate. There are several important stages in this coordinate that deserve our special attention. What is the reference to the life coordinates depicted by the saints for us today?
Everyone has reason to describe their own ideals, but all of them must start from the process of socialization and transform from a natural person to a person with social rules. This is the starting point of learning, and there are five in my mouth. "Being willing to learn" is his starting point for learning, and also a requirement for his students. So, what kind of learning is the most effective today? Only learning that leads to the reshaping of a person's entire value system, behavioral change, efficiency, more agility, and socially responsive learning is good learning. Today in this information age, there are so many things we have to learn. Nowadays, students are learning more than the age of five, but why? Many children will recite the pi, and will recite dozens of dozens of long poems, etc., but are these really useful for their life? These studies are what Confucius said as "learning for oneself" and "learning to use it"? "It’s too late to be too much." Confucius’s point of view is that even the best things have his degree. Instead of chewing on it, it’s better to combine limited knowledge. Confucius said: “If you don’t think, then you don’t think, but you don’t learn. "You must learn while you want to use it. After such learning and experience, you gradually improve your feelings, and you will be thirty years old."
From the year of "standing" into the year of Confucius's "no confusion", this should be the best time in life, but can everyone be confused when they are forty? In modern society, the 40-year-old middle-aged man has a small age, a job has become a backbone, and the pressure is very large. How can you be tempted in such an environment? A person who lives in Addition before the age of 30 is constantly collecting what he needs from the world, such as experience, wealth, emotion, reputation, and so on. But the more material things, the more easily people are confused. After the age of 30, they will start to use subtractive life. They must learn to abandon those things that are not what your heart needs, those that you don’t want to give up, things you don’t want to do. Refused, don't earn money, don't want to give up, know how to give up when you really get close to the state of no confusion, then what is not? That is, people can consciously follow the doctrine of the mean to think about acting. Even if the outside world gives you many unfair and blows, you can quickly establish your own position on a coordinate.
Confucius’s "knowing the destiny" is what people often say, "The hits must be there at the end, and the hits are forever." When a person reaches the age of 50, will he know the destiny? To answer this question, we must first understand what it means to know. The key to "knowing the destiny" lies in the word "know". To be able to understand what is your destiny, when you truly realize the poverty and wealth in the destiny, the good and the bad in the world, know that all this is natural, then you Being able to rationally grasp the calm treatment and use the inner strength of a certain force to deal with the outside world can be done without blaming the sky, not being especially human, not moving by foreign objects, reaching a kind of integration and promotion. Enter the realm of "ears".
"Early Shun" is that no matter what you can listen to, you can stand on the speaker's position to think about the problem, but in real life, we often encounter things that don't go well. If you don't want to hear it, how can you really do it? What about ear? "Early Shun" is the principle that can maximize the respect for others to understand the existence of any kind of thing, can listen to all kinds of voices humbly, and stand on the stand of others to understand why he said this. This kind of realm is expressed in Chinese characters. Sad and sorrowful."
Through the Minglun Hall, there is a tassel stone in front of the Imperial Examination Museum, which means that it is the best place to take pictures.
The site of the Imperial Examination Museum was originally the largest academy in Pingyao City. At the time of its creation, Pingyao’s social economy was different from that of Kangxi. However, the rapid development of the Shanxi merchants, the rise of the banking industry, and their donations made this school If the tiger is more powerful and more prosperous, what are the reasons for Jin’s good deeds? On the one hand, the Confucianism concept of "emergency and good fortune, benefiting the mulberry" is the ideological foundation for their creation of the academy. On the other hand, the powerful driving force of the wealthy interests of the business can promote the formation of the style of abandoning the Confucianism, but the promotion of the land. Abandoning Confucianism did not completely abandon the study, but changed the way of thousands of years of reading and making official achievements. Through business, you can also be a patriarch of Guangzong, famous for the four parties, and through business, you can also live on the days of jewellery, and through business, you can also Donate to the official."
The establishment of the Chaoshan Academy has more than 1,200 and two hundred silvers returned by the court. Most of the rest are donated by the city's famous trade names, such as Rishengchang, Baichuantong, and Synergy, and the wealthy businessmen turned their attention to the education of the county. The economic source of the establishment of the college has been guaranteed. The start-up capital of the creation of the time is only 12,000 yuan, and there is a ticket number of 650 per year, which guarantees the annual school expenses.
Sufficient funds for running a school can of course enable the college to hire famous teachers. The 11 mountain leaders who have served here are all from Jinshi. Many rich social experiences and official sea experience. The famous teachers naturally cultivated many scholars and people for Pingyao. Moreover, the development of Shanxi merchants has sent a large number of management talents. It is said that when Mr. Xu Jizhen, the oldest minister who once contributed here, left the official residence, the people who greeted the martyrdom for dozens of miles, among which the major firms, The ticket number has sent him plaques, gifts, and some well-known local businessmen have also personally sent away, to express their gratitude.
The academy is a teaching place where the county is in line with the national civil examinations. Children's primary education in the enlightenment education has to be carried out here. However, in Pingyao, influenced by the idea of “learning and doing business”, the college has to teach students four books. The Five Classics, more time to learn calligraphy, abacus, social and other knowledge, this is also the three magic weapon of the success of the Shanxi merchants.
Merchants are willing to help students, students are keen to do business, and make the development of Pingyao business and education form an interactive relationship. It is the Confucian education feature of Pingyao Chaoshan Academy in the Qing Dynasty.
Now use the entire site of the entire academy to open up for the Chinese Imperial Examination Museum, and then we will understand one by one.
The Chinese imperial examination is the only way for the ancient students to get ahead. Because once successful, from then on, the glory of the ancestors. However, the Chinese style is extremely difficult. It has been a dozen or so examinations of a large and small scale. After decades of struggle, it has defeated a batch of opponents. Only after the five passes will be able to stand out. It can be imagined that it is necessary to take the "head cantilever, cone and bone", "three more lights, five more sounds" to eat hard and bitter, and to be a person.
The imperial examination began in Tang, established in the Tang Dynasty, completed in the Song Dynasty, prospered in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and used more than 1300 years before and after. In fact, before the imperial examinations, each dynasty in the history of our country had its own way of taking the official. The imperial chanting system of the 尧, 舜, and 禹 dynasties; the hereditary system of the Western Han Dynasty, etc., but the human factors of these systems are too many, and they are moving toward the opening of the imperial examination.
The imperial examinations are divided into texts and martial arts. The test procedure is conducted by the third-level test, the test, and the test.
Pingyao Jinshang is the hero of China, and it relies on a group of people of insight who are open to the outside world. These well-thought-out businessmen are inseparable from the cultivation of the Confucian Temple and cannot be separated from the Confucianism of the Confucian Temple. Intellectual support.
Since ancient times, Wen can rule the country, Wu Neng Anbang. Wu Zetian in the Tang Dynasty opened the first river - Wuju. However, the examination subjects of Wuju are divided into the field and the infield. To put it bluntly is today's practice and theory. Outfield test: horse shooting, step arrow, horse shooting, weight bearing, asking for the bow to be full, the knife will dance, the stone will be one foot away from the ground; the infield test "Sun Zi", "Sima Law", "Wu Jing" . The procedures for the examinations are the same as those for the texts. They are also divided into three levels of examinations, examinations, and examinations. According to statistics, in the 1300 examinations, the number of literary champions was more than 700, and the number of martial arts champions was 77. "Learning the martial arts, report to the emperor's family." This is the duty of every military champion, the cabinet also displays ancient weapons, ancient wallet, champion and the first copper lock, bronze mirror, Minghua money. There are also various shaped copper locks in the Qing Dynasty, such as fish-shaped, dog-shaped, and monkey-shaped, which are very fine.
Dongxue Palace has been opened as the Pingyao International Photography Museum. This is the only professional photography museum in the country that has exhibited many famous photographs and old photographs, each of which is releasing the power of life through photography.
The visit to Pingyao Confucian Temple is coming to an end. Thank you for your support and cooperation. Please suggest the inadequacies. I also hope that you can use our mouth beer to publicize our literary temple and the "Golden Merchants Hall". Welcome to visit next time. !