平遥文庙学宫 2019-10-28 10:31:03 作者:SystemMaster 来源:
Crossing the Dacheng Gate, there are bells and drums on both sides. Although the bells and drums in the temple are used to remind the time, the bells and drums here are the fortune clock and the sacred drum. As the saying goes: "The time comes to work" provides a good opportunity for us to make good fortune.
This courtyard is a sacred area. The two sides of the temple are Dongpu and Xiqiao, respectively, which are dedicated to the seventy-two sages. They are all vivid, very realistic statues of the sage, plus the 15 main statues in the main hall of the main hall. The 87 statues form the largest Confucius and sage statues in the country, and are another "China's best" in the Pingyao Confucian Temple. Although these sages have different cultural attainments, they have the same cultural achievements and enjoy the incense and sacrifices of future generations.
The Dacheng Hall is the highest hall of the Temple of Literature. The decoration of the roof and the wide platform reflect this momentum. It was built in the Han Dynasty and rebuilt in the Southern Song Dynasty Jin Dading for three years (1163). It has a history of more than 840 years. According to the "Chinese Famous Dictionary" edited by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, the Pingyao Confucian Temple Dacheng Hall is extant in the country. The earliest Dacheng Hall. It is 317 years earlier than the Confucius Temple in Qufu, Shandong Province, 706 years earlier than the Nanjing Confucius Temple and 248 years earlier than the Beijing Confucian Temple. On the front of the temple, there is also a picture of the "two dragons play beads". The dragon is a symbol of ancient oriental culture. It is also a symbol of power and status. It is carved with dragon patterns and marks the Confucianism in Chinese traditional culture. The dominant position.
The center of the temple is enshrined with the image of the emperor of the Confucius who is familiar to us. It sits 4.5m high, wears twelve scorpions, wears twelve chapters, holds the town, and has a long chest. Respectfully. This is because in the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty sealed the Confucius as the King of Wen Xuan, thus molding the image of his emperor. Although Confucius did not have the position of emperor, he had the virtue of emperor, so Emperor Kangxi gave him the title of “Wan Shi Shi”. . The plaques on the top of the entire hall are all the subjects of the Qing dynasty emperors. "There are no living people", "and the heavens and the earth", "Deqi 帱 帱", etc., especially the symmetry of the Confucius’s life. Shanglian "Dao Ruojiang River can be a place to go", the next link "Shengru, the sun and the moon have a spring and autumn."
后来，随着孔子地位的不断攀升，众多弟子也跟着风光起来，按级别分别给予了他们不同的配享待遇 “四配”“十哲”。“四配”是仅次于孔子之位的有复圣颜回、述圣孔伋、亚圣孟轲和宗圣曾参，东西两侧神台上还有“十哲” 闵损、冉雍、端木赐、仲由、卜商、有若，这边是冉耕、宰予、冉求、言偃、颛孙师。十位里边我们要着重了解的是东边第三位端木赐，姓端木，名赐，字子贡，是春秋后期卫国人，他是孔门弟子中唯一的一位弃儒经商之人，我们山西商人尊称他是儒商鼻祖，商界之神，因为他善于“预测商情，侍贾而沾”每次做买卖都能赚大钱，他的成功之路就是先读书后经商。读书做官，曾经在那么长的历史中是很多人毕生所追求的目标，做了官既有特权分享又能光宗耀祖，似乎是人生价值的唯一体现了，但山西人却把学生意放在首位，把几千年形成的“四民”士、农、工商顺序颠倒过来，商由末位荣居首位。很多地方史志中还记述有许多弃儒就商的人物，例如，祥泰隆号道光年间的总管经理董振镛是贡生，其孙董枢是附生，但在书院读书肆业后都没参加省乡试中举，都去经了商。他们或因家境窘迫或谨遵父命但都放弃了考取功名而专务商贾，他们坚信：贾需儒，儒可贾，贾可仕。从事经商并不放弃读书，而读书不为做官为的是满足经商的需要，这种观念的更新才是当年这里富足的原因之一。
Later, as the status of Confucius continued to rise, many disciples followed the scenery and gave them different entitlements according to their levels. "Four Matches" is the second place behind Confucius. There are Fuyangyanhui, Shushengkong, Yashengmeng, and Zongshengzeng. There are also "Shizhe" on the sides of the east and west sides. Duanmu, Zhongyue, Bu Shang, Ruo Ruo, here are ploughing, slaughtering, begging, talking, and grandson. Among the ten people, we must focus on the third Dharma, the last name, the name of the end, the name, the word tribute, is the Weiguo people in the late Spring and Autumn Period, he is the only one of the Confucius disciples who abandoned the Confucian business, we Shanxi merchants respected him as the originator of Confucian merchants, the god of business, because he is good at "predicting business conditions, serving the company" and earning big money every time he makes a sale. His success is to study and then do business. Reading and being an official has been the goal pursued by many people throughout his long history. It is the only embodiment of the value of life that has been privileged to share the privilege of the official. However, the Shanxi people put the students’ interest in the first place. The order of the "four people" formed by the millennial, the order of agriculture, industry and commerce was reversed, and the merchants ranked first in the last place. Many local history records also contain many people who have abandoned the Confucian business. For example, Dong Zhenyu, the general manager of the Xiangguanglong Daoguang Period, is a tribute. His Sun Dongshu is an episode, but he did not participate in the provincial and rural trials after studying in the academy. They have all gone through business. They are either embarrassed by their family or obeying their father's life, but they have given up their professional qualifications. They firmly believe that Jia needs Confucianism, Confucianism, and Jia Keshi. Engaging in business does not give up studying, and reading is not for the official is to meet the needs of business, this concept of renewal is one of the reasons for the rich here.
After coming out of Dacheng Hall, we saw a monument hall on each side. Most of the monuments stored in the monument hall are merits and monuments. It is the record of the ancients donating money to the restoration of the Temple of Literature. Many of them are the names of many people in Pingyao's major trade names, and the name of many people is densely engraved. At least one or two silvers are donated, but one or two silvers at that time, regardless of the quality, can buy an acre of good land. It is also a considerable number to put it today. Why did Pingyao people always pay attention to the renovation of the Temple of Literature? Because Jin Merchants is a Confucian merchant, Confucianism is a respectable name for those who have knowledge and knowledge. Therefore, in daily life, people who have abandoned the Confucian business can appear. This cloud said Dong Shu and others who were engraved on this monument. Dong Shu is the grandfather of Dong Peiliang, the former vice chairman of the CPPCC in our county. They are the books they read at the Temple of Literature. At that time, it was already possible to go to Beijing to test the scholars, but in order to inherit the ancestral industry and abandon the Confucian business, it was a very glorious thing at that time, because at the time the family of the Shanxi merchants went to do business, three or four The children of the stream went to the imperial examination.
The Confucian school district is in the third entrance of the central axis. In the center of the back wall of Dacheng Hall, there is a huge "Que" character, which is the crowning touch of the Confucian Temple. It is from the hand of the famous Southern Song Dynasty, and it is in the Qianlong period. It was taken up by Pingyao people, so it has a very high value of calligraphy. It is very strange that there is no first pen above this word. The explanation of the locals is that I hope that the champion who came out of the county will come to the temple and then add it. I can see that the Pingyao people did not win the field. On the contrary, in their ideological concepts, business is the most versatile, and they are determined to be the shopkeepers of the ticket number. Many children who have not yet entered the school have regarded business as a path of growth rather than a book. The impressions and ideas left by the ancestors are that "the business is not light, and the study is business-oriented" is a way of complementing business and learning. This is the biggest difference between Shanxi merchants and Huizhou merchants. Therefore, the Shanxi merchants will learn from the ancient teachings. "Shi Shi" was changed to "learning and excellent business". In Pingyao, we can't see a high-spirited scientific research archway. Because Pingyao people's glory and dreams are in the shopping malls, they realized their dreams and won the business leader. The first in the mall.
Now I see the Longmen Square in front. In ancient times, there was a saying that "the squid jumped the dragon door". The skipper was a dragon, and the jumper was a fish. Before the imperial examination, the local students were rushing to jump the dragon gate, and there was still a certain Exquisite, one jump... two jumps...
The buildings in this courtyard were built in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. Since their construction, their functions have always been the teachers' place, that is, the place of study, such as the well-known Chinese and foreign business giants such as Qiao Zhiyong, Lei Lutai, and Mao Hongjun. Their cleverness is not innate. They must be cultivated by the teachers of the day after tomorrow. Xizang and Rixinzhai are the places where the general teacher lectured in the same year. According to the Analects of Confucius, they are now named as "ancient "Education Exhibition" and "Spirit Room Four Treasures Exhibition", we first entered the time to learn fast.
China is the country where education originated and schools produced earlier. Education originally came from the teaching of primitive social life activities and production experience. Later, with the development of productivity, the separation of mental and physical labor, hieroglyphics appeared, and intellectuals specialized in education were produced. At the same time, the emergence of words and knowledge Accumulation provides the content of education. However, the need to specifically transfer knowledge and skills requires specialized educational institutions to cultivate, and education gradually differentiates from social activities. The direct result is the emergence of schools.
During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, there was a continual merger war between the various countries, and the state education was decadent, because the attention of the rulers was concentrated in the military struggle, and the education was indifferent, so the official school declined, and the rise of private school presented a hundred schools of thought contending. Scenery, in this period, the first to break the "learning in the government" and to create a private lecture is the protagonist of the Confucian Temple - Confucius, who became a professional fashion at that time, and respected the teacher and received an unprecedented grand occasion.
During the Qin Dynasty, Emperor Qin Shihuang implemented the policy of "burning books and pits Confucianism", which gave Chinese education a severe blow to school education. In the Han Dynasty, education was re-emphasized by the rulers. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty adopted Dong Zhongshu's opinion and implemented the policy of “dismissing 100 schools and respecting Confucianism” and established the highest institution with the main task of imparting knowledge and knowledge. - Taixue, and gradually established the central and local school system, laying a preliminary foundation for the school system of the feudal dynasties in the past.
By the time of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the school gradually became more standardized. The government-run schools included Chinese studies, Guozijian, county and county schools, and private schools. This is the beginning of the establishment of an education administration department and the establishment of an education chief in the history of education in China. In the process of later improvement, the way of being educated and entering the official gradually became clearer--the imperial examination became a smooth way for the students to go to the official career, and there was a college in the Song Dynasty. From the Song Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, the college went from decline to decline. To Xing, the ancients also knew that education is a prosperous country, and competition between countries is the competition of talents and ultimately the competition of education.
Rixinzhai, the time to learn from time to time, the new day, is the place where ancient students study, and now it is turned into a four-store exhibition. We have exhibited four treasures of various precious houses in different eras - pen, ink, paper, and enamel. Let's start with paper.
The paper was invented by Cailun of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Papermaking and compass, printing, and gunpowder were listed as four major inventions in China. They once played an indispensable role in the spread of history and culture. Even today, when mechanical papers are prevalent, some traditional handmade papers still have an irreplaceable role. There are many types of paper, rice paper, coated paper, Daolin paper, news paper, and so on. However, the use of a wide range of ancient Chinese calligraphy has a rice paper, with the name of the Xuancheng paper produced by Anhui Xuancheng. The raw material used was sandalwood, which began to blend with rice straw in the Qing Dynasty. For thousands of years, Xuan paper has enjoyed the reputation of “Shou Paper Millennium” for its soft texture, unbridled texture, tight texture, smooth and jade-like, and non-corruption. It has become a necessity for Chinese painting and calligraphy. The paintings and classics of ancient Chinese masters have been passed down to the present day. Xuan paper is the carrier of its dependence and has been favored by people since ancient times. It not only becomes a special paper for traditional painting and calligraphy art, but also some important archival materials, precious books, etc. in history are often preserved using rice paper. Xuan paper has won many awards for this. In 1915, Xuan paper won the gold medal at the Panama International Exposition. According to the performance of rice paper, there are two major categories: birth and declaration. Sheng Xuan is made of tan bark tanned leather and straw straw, which are arranged according to different proportions. The more leather, the better the paper, the greater the pulling force, the more able to hold the ink. The best rice paper is shining against the sun, and you can see clouds like cotton wool. The paper is smooth and free of impurities. The paper's auxiliary tools are also paperweight paper for pressing paper, also known as Shuzhen and Zhenji.
The pen is a writing instrument. But there are many kinds of pencils, ballpoint pens, pens, etc. But in ancient times, the main writing instrument was the brush. It is a unique pen type in China. The production of a brush is actually very simple. It is a bamboo pole, and the bottom is a hair. The pen made by this method can be traced back to more than 2,000 years ago and widely used in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, but the production method is much more elaborate. There are many types of writing brushes, which are roughly divided into soft, hard, and three. We generally have softness and small elasticity, which is suitable for writing large bodies. Hard pens use a variety of animals, the hair of livestock to make pens, such as chicken feathers, wool, deer hair, pig hair, tiger hair, and even the beard of rats. According to legend, the Eastern Jin Dynasty Wang Shuzhi was written in the "Lanting Preface" with a rat.
How to choose a good pen, as long as it meets the pen's "four virtues", round, round, and healthy, and also has various ornaments on the pen. Tools related to the pen include a pen holder, a pen holder, and a pen wash.
Ink is an indispensable item in ancient writing. Chinese paintings and paintings with distinctive national characteristics are precisely the use of this original material to show their charm. The appearance of ink and pen is almost at the same time. Because both are indispensable. The use of ink is heavy on grinding, with special emphasis on grinding in a clockwise direction.
It also produces a magical effect when running the pen. Moreover, the ink also has four virtues, namely: fine quality, light glue, black color, and clear sound. The contemporary calligraphy master high school is suitable for the poems of "people say that the ink is grind, and the wearer wears the iron shovel." It tells the rich connotation of grinding the patience and training people's perseverance. Ink is also compatible with ink. We now have a variety of inks for painting and calligraphy, such as "Chinese ink", "Yi Dege", "Cao Sugong", etc., can be used on behalf of ink.