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平遥文庙导游词2
平遥文庙学宫   2019-10-28 10:31:03 作者:SystemMaster 来源:
  跨过大成门,两侧设有钟和鼓,虽说寺庙里的钟鼓是“晨钟暮鼓”提醒时间之用,但这里的钟鼓却是时运钟和圣音鼓。常言说:“时来运转响一声”为我们结交好运提供了一个很好的机会。

  这一院落均为祭祀区,两边配殿是东庑、西庑分别供奉着七十二圣贤,均为栩栩如生,非常逼真的圣哲塑像,再加主殿大成殿中的15尊主像,该院共有87尊塑像,形成全国最大的孔子及先贤塑像群,是我们平遥文庙的又一“中国之最”。这些圣哲们虽有不同的文化造诣,但有相同的文化成果,享受人们后人的香火和祭祀。

Crossing the Dacheng Gate, there are bells and drums on both sides. Although the bells and drums in the temple are used to remind the time, the bells and drums here are the fortune clock and the sacred drum. As the saying goes: "The time comes to work" provides a good opportunity for us to make good fortune.

This courtyard is a sacred area. The two sides of the temple are Dongpu and Xiqiao, respectively, which are dedicated to the seventy-two sages. They are all vivid, very realistic statues of the sage, plus the 15 main statues in the main hall of the main hall. The 87 statues form the largest Confucius and sage statues in the country, and are another "China's best" in the Pingyao Confucian Temple. Although these sages have different cultural attainments, they have the same cultural achievements and enjoy the incense and sacrifices of future generations.

  大成殿是文庙学宫的最高殿堂,屋顶的装饰,宽广的月台都体现着这种气势所在。始建于汉代,重修于南宋金大定三年(1163年),距今已有840多年的历史,而据国家文物局主编的《中国名胜词典》中明确记载,平遥文庙大成殿是全国现存最早的大成殿。它比山东曲阜孔庙早317年,比南京夫子庙早706年,比北京文庙的早248年。殿前迎面月台上还雕有“二龙戏珠”图,龙是古代东方文化的象征,更是权位与地位的象征,这里雕有龙的图案,也标志着儒学在中国传统文化中的主导地位。

  殿内正中央供奉着的是我们耳熟能详的孔圣人的帝王之像,它坐高4.5m,头戴十二旒冕,身穿十二章服,手持镇圭,长鬓齐胸,令人肃然起敬。这是因为在唐朝时,唐玄宗封孔子为文宣王,因此塑出其帝王之像,尽管孔子它没有帝王之位,但他有帝王之德,于是康熙皇帝为其亲题“万世师表”之匾。整个大殿顶上的匾额均为清朝历代皇帝所题,“生民未有”“与天地参”“德齐帱载”等,尤其是旁边楹上的这幅对联道出了孔子一生的精髓,上联“道若江河随地可成洙泗”,下联“圣如日月普天皆有春秋”。

The Dacheng Hall is the highest hall of the Temple of Literature. The decoration of the roof and the wide platform reflect this momentum. It was built in the Han Dynasty and rebuilt in the Southern Song Dynasty Jin Dading for three years (1163). It has a history of more than 840 years. According to the "Chinese Famous Dictionary" edited by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, the Pingyao Confucian Temple Dacheng Hall is extant in the country. The earliest Dacheng Hall. It is 317 years earlier than the Confucius Temple in Qufu, Shandong Province, 706 years earlier than the Nanjing Confucius Temple and 248 years earlier than the Beijing Confucian Temple. On the front of the temple, there is also a picture of the "two dragons play beads". The dragon is a symbol of ancient oriental culture. It is also a symbol of power and status. It is carved with dragon patterns and marks the Confucianism in Chinese traditional culture. The dominant position.

The center of the temple is enshrined with the image of the emperor of the Confucius who is familiar to us. It sits 4.5m high, wears twelve scorpions, wears twelve chapters, holds the town, and has a long chest. Respectfully. This is because in the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty sealed the Confucius as the King of Wen Xuan, thus molding the image of his emperor. Although Confucius did not have the position of emperor, he had the virtue of emperor, so Emperor Kangxi gave him the title of “Wan Shi Shi”. . The plaques on the top of the entire hall are all the subjects of the Qing dynasty emperors. "There are no living people", "and the heavens and the earth", "Deqi 帱 帱", etc., especially the symmetry of the Confucius’s life. Shanglian "Dao Ruojiang River can be a place to go", the next link "Shengru, the sun and the moon have a spring and autumn."

  后来,随着孔子地位的不断攀升,众多弟子也跟着风光起来,按级别分别给予了他们不同的配享待遇 “四配”“十哲”。“四配”是仅次于孔子之位的有复圣颜回、述圣孔伋、亚圣孟轲和宗圣曾参,东西两侧神台上还有“十哲” 闵损、冉雍、端木赐、仲由、卜商、有若,这边是冉耕、宰予、冉求、言偃、颛孙师。十位里边我们要着重了解的是东边第三位端木赐,姓端木,名赐,字子贡,是春秋后期卫国人,他是孔门弟子中唯一的一位弃儒经商之人,我们山西商人尊称他是儒商鼻祖,商界之神,因为他善于“预测商情,侍贾而沾”每次做买卖都能赚大钱,他的成功之路就是先读书后经商。读书做官,曾经在那么长的历史中是很多人毕生所追求的目标,做了官既有特权分享又能光宗耀祖,似乎是人生价值的唯一体现了,但山西人却把学生意放在首位,把几千年形成的“四民”士、农、工商顺序颠倒过来,商由末位荣居首位。很多地方史志中还记述有许多弃儒就商的人物,例如,祥泰隆号道光年间的总管经理董振镛是贡生,其孙董枢是附生,但在书院读书肆业后都没参加省乡试中举,都去经了商。他们或因家境窘迫或谨遵父命但都放弃了考取功名而专务商贾,他们坚信:贾需儒,儒可贾,贾可仕。从事经商并不放弃读书,而读书不为做官为的是满足经商的需要,这种观念的更新才是当年这里富足的原因之一。

Later, as the status of Confucius continued to rise, many disciples followed the scenery and gave them different entitlements according to their levels. "Four Matches" is the second place behind Confucius. There are Fuyangyanhui, Shushengkong, Yashengmeng, and Zongshengzeng. There are also "Shizhe" on the sides of the east and west sides. Duanmu, Zhongyue, Bu Shang, Ruo Ruo, here are ploughing, slaughtering, begging, talking, and grandson. Among the ten people, we must focus on the third Dharma, the last name, the name of the end, the name, the word tribute, is the Weiguo people in the late Spring and Autumn Period, he is the only one of the Confucius disciples who abandoned the Confucian business, we Shanxi merchants respected him as the originator of Confucian merchants, the god of business, because he is good at "predicting business conditions, serving the company" and earning big money every time he makes a sale. His success is to study and then do business. Reading and being an official has been the goal pursued by many people throughout his long history. It is the only embodiment of the value of life that has been privileged to share the privilege of the official. However, the Shanxi people put the students’ interest in the first place. The order of the "four people" formed by the millennial, the order of agriculture, industry and commerce was reversed, and the merchants ranked first in the last place. Many local history records also contain many people who have abandoned the Confucian business. For example, Dong Zhenyu, the general manager of the Xiangguanglong Daoguang Period, is a tribute. His Sun Dongshu is an episode, but he did not participate in the provincial and rural trials after studying in the academy. They have all gone through business. They are either embarrassed by their family or obeying their father's life, but they have given up their professional qualifications. They firmly believe that Jia needs Confucianism, Confucianism, and Jia Keshi. Engaging in business does not give up studying, and reading is not for the official is to meet the needs of business, this concept of renewal is one of the reasons for the rich here.

  从大成殿出来后我们看到两侧各有一个碑厅,碑厅里所存放的大都是功德碑,是古人为修复文庙捐助的记载。其中很多是平遥各大商号票号财东碑上密密麻麻刻了很多人的名字,最少只捐了一两白银,但那个时期的一两白银,不说成色好坏,可以买到一亩好地,放到今天来讲也是一笔可观的数字,为什么平遥人一直以来都很重视文庙的翻修?因为晋商就是儒商,儒是对有知识、有学问者的尊称,所以在日常生活中才能出现弃儒经商的人。此云说这块碑上刻的董枢等人,董枢是我县原任政协副主席董培良的祖父辈他们就是在文庙学宫读的书。当时已经可以中举并进京赶考进士,但为了继承祖业,又弃儒经商,当时来讲这是很光荣的事,因为在当时的晋商家族中一二流的读书子弟去经商,三四流的子弟才去参加科举考试。


After coming out of Dacheng Hall, we saw a monument hall on each side. Most of the monuments stored in the monument hall are merits and monuments. It is the record of the ancients donating money to the restoration of the Temple of Literature. Many of them are the names of many people in Pingyao's major trade names, and the name of many people is densely engraved. At least one or two silvers are donated, but one or two silvers at that time, regardless of the quality, can buy an acre of good land. It is also a considerable number to put it today. Why did Pingyao people always pay attention to the renovation of the Temple of Literature? Because Jin Merchants is a Confucian merchant, Confucianism is a respectable name for those who have knowledge and knowledge. Therefore, in daily life, people who have abandoned the Confucian business can appear. This cloud said Dong Shu and others who were engraved on this monument. Dong Shu is the grandfather of Dong Peiliang, the former vice chairman of the CPPCC in our county. They are the books they read at the Temple of Literature. At that time, it was already possible to go to Beijing to test the scholars, but in order to inherit the ancestral industry and abandon the Confucian business, it was a very glorious thing at that time, because at the time the family of the Shanxi merchants went to do business, three or four The children of the stream went to the imperial examination.

  儒学区在中轴线的第三进院落,此院大成殿的后墙中央写有一个硕大的“魁”字,喻为文庙的点睛之笔,它出自南宋著名丞相文天祥之手,是在乾隆年间由平遥人临摹上去的,所以它具有很高明的书法价值,很奇怪的是,这个“魁”字上方没有第一笔?当地人的解释就是希望本县考出来的那名状元来文庙祭孔之后再亲自添上去的,看得出来,当年的平遥人并没有在科场上夺魁。相反,在他们的思想观念中,经商是最能光宗耀祖的,都是要立志当上票号的掌柜的,很多尚未入学的孩子,已把经商视为成长之路,而非读书做官。祖祖辈辈留下的印象和理念就是“重商不轻学,重学为经商”走一条商学互补的路子,这是晋商和徽商最大的区别所在了,所以,晋商将古训“学而优则仕”改为了“学而优则商”在平遥我们看不到一座意气飞扬的科考牌坊因为平遥人的光荣和梦想是在商场,他们实现了自己的梦想,夺得了商业之魁,取得了商场中的第一。

The Confucian school district is in the third entrance of the central axis. In the center of the back wall of Dacheng Hall, there is a huge "Que" character, which is the crowning touch of the Confucian Temple. It is from the hand of the famous Southern Song Dynasty, and it is in the Qianlong period. It was taken up by Pingyao people, so it has a very high value of calligraphy. It is very strange that there is no first pen above this word. The explanation of the locals is that I hope that the champion who came out of the county will come to the temple and then add it. I can see that the Pingyao people did not win the field. On the contrary, in their ideological concepts, business is the most versatile, and they are determined to be the shopkeepers of the ticket number. Many children who have not yet entered the school have regarded business as a path of growth rather than a book. The impressions and ideas left by the ancestors are that "the business is not light, and the study is business-oriented" is a way of complementing business and learning. This is the biggest difference between Shanxi merchants and Huizhou merchants. Therefore, the Shanxi merchants will learn from the ancient teachings. "Shi Shi" was changed to "learning and excellent business". In Pingyao, we can't see a high-spirited scientific research archway. Because Pingyao people's glory and dreams are in the shopping malls, they realized their dreams and won the business leader. The first in the mall.

  现在看到前方有龙门坊,古代有“鲤鱼跳龙门”之说,跳过者为龙,跳不过者为鱼,每到科举前,各地乡民学子都是争先恐后地跳龙门,而且还有一定的讲究,一跳……二跳……

  这一院落的建筑均为明代中期所建,自修建以来,它们的功能一直是老师之所,也就是学习之地,诸如乔致庸、雷履泰、毛鸿翙等这样的驰名中外的商界巨子,他们的聪明不是与生俱来的,得有后天老师的培养,院子两边的厢房时习斋和日新斋就是当年一般老师讲课之所,据《论语》而得名,现在分别开辟为“古代教育展”和“文房四宝展”,我们先走进时习斋。

Now I see the Longmen Square in front. In ancient times, there was a saying that "the squid jumped the dragon door". The skipper was a dragon, and the jumper was a fish. Before the imperial examination, the local students were rushing to jump the dragon gate, and there was still a certain Exquisite, one jump... two jumps...

The buildings in this courtyard were built in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. Since their construction, their functions have always been the teachers' place, that is, the place of study, such as the well-known Chinese and foreign business giants such as Qiao Zhiyong, Lei Lutai, and Mao Hongjun. Their cleverness is not innate. They must be cultivated by the teachers of the day after tomorrow. Xizang and Rixinzhai are the places where the general teacher lectured in the same year. According to the Analects of Confucius, they are now named as "ancient "Education Exhibition" and "Spirit Room Four Treasures Exhibition", we first entered the time to learn fast.

  中国是教育起源和学校产生较早的国家。 教育最初来自原始社会生活活动和生产经验的传授,后来随着生产力的发展,脑力劳动与体力劳动的分离,出现了象形文字,产生了专门从事教育的知识分子,同时,文字的出现、知识的积累,提供了教育的内容,然而专门传授知识技能的需求,需要有专门的教育机构来培养,教育逐渐从社会活动中分化出来,直接结果便是学校的产生。

  春秋战国时,各诸候国之间不断发生兼并战争,国家教育几经颓废,因为统治者的注意力都集中在了军事斗争方面,无暇顾及教育事业因此官学衰微,私学兴起才呈现出一派百家争鸣的繁荣景象,在这一时期,首先打破“学在官府”并开创私人讲学之先河的就是文庙学宫的主人公——孔子,为人师表成为当时的一种职业时尚,尊师重教得到了空前盛况。


China is the country where education originated and schools produced earlier. Education originally came from the teaching of primitive social life activities and production experience. Later, with the development of productivity, the separation of mental and physical labor, hieroglyphics appeared, and intellectuals specialized in education were produced. At the same time, the emergence of words and knowledge Accumulation provides the content of education. However, the need to specifically transfer knowledge and skills requires specialized educational institutions to cultivate, and education gradually differentiates from social activities. The direct result is the emergence of schools.

During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, there was a continual merger war between the various countries, and the state education was decadent, because the attention of the rulers was concentrated in the military struggle, and the education was indifferent, so the official school declined, and the rise of private school presented a hundred schools of thought contending. Scenery, in this period, the first to break the "learning in the government" and to create a private lecture is the protagonist of the Confucian Temple - Confucius, who became a professional fashion at that time, and respected the teacher and received an unprecedented grand occasion.

  秦朝时,秦始皇实行了“焚书坑儒”的政策,给中国教育以严重打击学校教育落入低谷。到了汉代,教育重新受到统治者的重视,汉武帝刘彻采纳了董仲舒的意见实施了“罢黜百家、独尊儒术”的政策,建立了真正意义上以传授知识研究学问为主要任务的最高学府——太学,并逐步建立了中央和地方的学校制度,为以后历代封建王朝的学校制度奠定了初步基础。

  到了隋唐时,学校逐渐趋于规范化,官办的学校有国学、国子监、郡县学、私办的有塾学等。这是我国教育史设立教育行政部门和设置教育长官的开始。在后来的改进过程中,受教育出来入仕的途径渐趋明朗化——科举成了学子通向仕途的坦途,并在宋朝出现了书院,从宋到清,书院由兴到衰,由衰到兴,古人也深知,教育兴则国家兴,国与国竞争就是人才的竞争,最终也是教育的竞争。

During the Qin Dynasty, Emperor Qin Shihuang implemented the policy of "burning books and pits Confucianism", which gave Chinese education a severe blow to school education. In the Han Dynasty, education was re-emphasized by the rulers. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty adopted Dong Zhongshu's opinion and implemented the policy of “dismissing 100 schools and respecting Confucianism” and established the highest institution with the main task of imparting knowledge and knowledge. - Taixue, and gradually established the central and local school system, laying a preliminary foundation for the school system of the feudal dynasties in the past.

By the time of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the school gradually became more standardized. The government-run schools included Chinese studies, Guozijian, county and county schools, and private schools. This is the beginning of the establishment of an education administration department and the establishment of an education chief in the history of education in China. In the process of later improvement, the way of being educated and entering the official gradually became clearer--the imperial examination became a smooth way for the students to go to the official career, and there was a college in the Song Dynasty. From the Song Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, the college went from decline to decline. To Xing, the ancients also knew that education is a prosperous country, and competition between countries is the competition of talents and ultimately the competition of education.

  日新斋,取意时时习,日日新,是古代学子修学的场所,现在辟为文房四宝展。展出有不同年代的各种名贵文房四宝——笔、墨、纸、砚,我们先从纸说起。

  纸是由东汉蔡伦发明的,造纸术与指南针、印刷术、火药被列为中国的四大发明,曾经为历史文化的传播发挥了不可或缺的作用。即使在机制纸盛行的今天,某些传统的手工纸依然体现着它不可替代的作用。纸的种类有很多,宣纸、铜版纸、道林纸、新闻纸等。但用途较广的结合我们古代书法就有宣纸,以安徽宣城生产纸故名宣纸。使用的原料是檀皮,到清代时开始掺和稻草改变了用料此例。千百年来,宣纸以其质地绵软、百搓不折、纹理紧密、光洁如玉、不腐不蛀等特点,享有“寿纸千年”的美誉,成为中国书画的必需品。中国历代名家的书画、古籍经典得以流传至今,宣纸是其依赖的载体,自古以来很受人们青睐。它不但成为传统书画艺术的专用纸,而且历史上一些重要的档案资料,珍贵图书等也常使用宣纸来保存。宣纸为此获得了许多殊荣。1915年宣纸在巴拿马万国博览会上夺得了金奖。宣纸按性能分有生宣和熟宣两大类。生宣是由檀树皮沤制的皮料和稻草沤制的草料,根据不同的比例配置而成。皮料越多,纸质越佳,拉力越大,越能盛得住墨。最好的宣纸对着日光照射,能看到象棉絮一样的云团,纸面光洁得没有杂质。纸的辅助工具还有作压纸的镇纸,又叫书镇、镇尺。



Rixinzhai, the time to learn from time to time, the new day, is the place where ancient students study, and now it is turned into a four-store exhibition. We have exhibited four treasures of various precious houses in different eras - pen, ink, paper, and enamel. Let's start with paper.

The paper was invented by Cailun of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Papermaking and compass, printing, and gunpowder were listed as four major inventions in China. They once played an indispensable role in the spread of history and culture. Even today, when mechanical papers are prevalent, some traditional handmade papers still have an irreplaceable role. There are many types of paper, rice paper, coated paper, Daolin paper, news paper, and so on. However, the use of a wide range of ancient Chinese calligraphy has a rice paper, with the name of the Xuancheng paper produced by Anhui Xuancheng. The raw material used was sandalwood, which began to blend with rice straw in the Qing Dynasty. For thousands of years, Xuan paper has enjoyed the reputation of “Shou Paper Millennium” for its soft texture, unbridled texture, tight texture, smooth and jade-like, and non-corruption. It has become a necessity for Chinese painting and calligraphy. The paintings and classics of ancient Chinese masters have been passed down to the present day. Xuan paper is the carrier of its dependence and has been favored by people since ancient times. It not only becomes a special paper for traditional painting and calligraphy art, but also some important archival materials, precious books, etc. in history are often preserved using rice paper. Xuan paper has won many awards for this. In 1915, Xuan paper won the gold medal at the Panama International Exposition. According to the performance of rice paper, there are two major categories: birth and declaration. Sheng Xuan is made of tan bark tanned leather and straw straw, which are arranged according to different proportions. The more leather, the better the paper, the greater the pulling force, the more able to hold the ink. The best rice paper is shining against the sun, and you can see clouds like cotton wool. The paper is smooth and free of impurities. The paper's auxiliary tools are also paperweight paper for pressing paper, also known as Shuzhen and Zhenji.


  笔是书写工具。但种类繁多有铅笔、圆珠笔、钢笔等。但在古代,主要书写工具就是毛笔了,是中国独有的笔种,毛笔的制作其实很简单,就是一根竹杆,底下系一摄毛即可。这种方法制作出来的笔可以追溯到两千多年前,东周时广泛使用,但制作方法精致许多。毛笔的种类有许多,大致分为软毫、硬毫、兼毫三种,我们一般常见的是软毫,弹性小,适合写大楷体。硬毫笔就是用各种禽兽,牲畜的毛来制笔,如鸡毛,羊毛,鹿毛,猪毛,虎毛,甚至还有用老鼠的胡须。相传东晋王羲之就是用鼠须笔写成《兰亭序》的。

如何选用一支好笔,只要符合笔的“四德”尖、圆、齐、健即可,另外在笔杆上还镶有各种饰品的。与笔相关的工具有笔架、笔筒、笔洗等。

  墨更是古代书写中必不可缺的用品。具有鲜明民族特色的中国书画,正是借助于这种独创的材料来展现其魅力的。墨与笔的出现几乎是在同时。因为两者缺一不可使用。墨的运用重在磨,特别强调要按顺时针方向磨,磨久了


The pen is a writing instrument. But there are many kinds of pencils, ballpoint pens, pens, etc. But in ancient times, the main writing instrument was the brush. It is a unique pen type in China. The production of a brush is actually very simple. It is a bamboo pole, and the bottom is a hair. The pen made by this method can be traced back to more than 2,000 years ago and widely used in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, but the production method is much more elaborate. There are many types of writing brushes, which are roughly divided into soft, hard, and three. We generally have softness and small elasticity, which is suitable for writing large bodies. Hard pens use a variety of animals, the hair of livestock to make pens, such as chicken feathers, wool, deer hair, pig hair, tiger hair, and even the beard of rats. According to legend, the Eastern Jin Dynasty Wang Shuzhi was written in the "Lanting Preface" with a rat.

How to choose a good pen, as long as it meets the pen's "four virtues", round, round, and healthy, and also has various ornaments on the pen. Tools related to the pen include a pen holder, a pen holder, and a pen wash.

Ink is an indispensable item in ancient writing. Chinese paintings and paintings with distinctive national characteristics are precisely the use of this original material to show their charm. The appearance of ink and pen is almost at the same time. Because both are indispensable. The use of ink is heavy on grinding, with special emphasis on grinding in a clockwise direction.

也会在运笔时产生一种神奇的功效。而且墨也有四德,即:质细、胶轻、色黑、声清。当代书法大师高二适有“人言磨墨墨磨人,磨穿铁砚始堪珍”的诗句,道出了磨墨能培养人的耐心、锻炼人毅力的丰富内涵。与墨相配的还有墨匣等。我们现在有多种书画用墨汁,如“中华墨汁”、“一得阁”、“曹素功”等,可以代墨使用。           
It also produces a magical effect when running the pen. Moreover, the ink also has four virtues, namely: fine quality, light glue, black color, and clear sound. The contemporary calligraphy master high school is suitable for the poems of "people say that the ink is grind, and the wearer wears the iron shovel." It tells the rich connotation of grinding the patience and training people's perseverance. Ink is also compatible with ink. We now have a variety of inks for painting and calligraphy, such as "Chinese ink", "Yi Dege", "Cao Sugong", etc., can be used on behalf of ink.


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